What are the phases of chemical reactions resulting in the emergence of migraine?Scientists think that migraine starts as a response to the contraction of blood vessels of the brain. Contraction of brain vessels occurs under the action of serotonin evolved by thrombocytes.

Thrombocytes are blood cells, they are smaller than erythrocytes. In the body thrombocytes participate in the process of blood clotting. When a blood vessel is impaired, thrombocytes interlock with each other and close the defect of a vessel wall. Otherwise, if bleeding continues it may reach threatening proportions. But if thrombocytes are too quick to interlock, a big thrombus may be developed in the vessel. Due to the breakaway of such thrombus from the vessel wall and due to its transfer with flow to the brain or to the heart, infarction or insult may occur.
If a system of blood clotting functions well, thrombocytes, while interlocking, evolve serotonin. Serotonin, in its turn, stimulates production of two other substances: thromboxane and prostacyclin. Thromboxane was the first to act; it helps serotonin to spasm quickly the brain’s vessels. Mutual action of thromboxane and prostacyclin results in fall-off of cerebral blood flow, and, as a consequence, migraine premonitory symptoms emerge.
In the second phase of a migraine attack the level of serotonin in blood slumps, blood vessels quickly dilate, inducing intensive throbbing headache. The ache is of a throbbing character because dilated blood vessels throb in time to the heartbeat, which pumps blood in them. Prostacyclin serves to further distention of blood vessels.
Ultimately, the third phase of migraine (reversibility phase after headache) comes. Throbbing pain gradually abates, giving place to a constant one. Walls of blood vessels become thicker and rigider, as prostacyclin and thromboxane turn into prostaglandins, but the headache goes on. Under its influence inflammation gradually develops in the walls of arteries. Puffed blood vessels often are seen on the scalp, temples and back surface of the neck. Regardless that migraine attack is already past, the pain still remains for a long time. Moreover, prostaglandins increase sensitivity of the nerve endings, placed in the head’s skin, and therefore even combing of the head becomes painful.
There is an appreciable difference between distention of blood vessels and their inflammation. For instance, if you take hot bath blood vessels of your head dilate, but this will not bring pain as in the case of migraine. One example more: if a person do exercises actively and for a long time blood vessels will dilate, but there is no pain.
However, during an attack of migraine blood vessels are not only dilate, but they inflame. Such inflammation is called aseptic, as vessel walls inflame without involvement of infection.
Migraines, due to menstrual cycle, start at once before, during, or in the first two days after menstrual bleeding. In some women beginning of a migraine attack is due to the time of ovulation. There is no such thing as daily migraine.
Duration and intensity: usually an attack of migraine lasts from four to twenty four hours, intensity of headaches also varies. Some women with a bad course of migraine should lie in a dark room.

What are the phases of chemical reactions resulting in the emergence of migraine?

Scientists think that migraine starts as a response to the contraction of blood vessels of the brain. Contraction of brain vessels occurs under the action of serotonin evolved by thrombocytes.

Thrombocytes are blood cells, they are smaller than erythrocytes. In the body thrombocytes participate in the process of blood clotting. When a blood vessel is impaired, thrombocytes interlock with each other and close the defect of a vessel wall. Otherwise, if bleeding continues it may reach threatening proportions. But if thrombocytes are too quick to interlock, a big thrombus may be developed in the vessel. Due to the breakaway of such thrombus from the vessel wall and due to its transfer with flow to the brain or to the heart, infarction or insult may occur.

If a system of blood clotting functions well, thrombocytes, while interlocking, evolve serotonin. Serotonin, in its turn, stimulates production of two other substances: thromboxane and prostacyclin. Thromboxane was the first to act; it helps serotonin to spasm quickly the brain’s vessels. Mutual action of thromboxane and prostacyclin results in fall-off of cerebral blood flow, and, as a consequence, migraine premonitory symptoms emerge.

In the second phase of a migraine attack the level of serotonin in blood slumps, blood vessels quickly dilate, inducing intensive throbbing headache. The ache is of a throbbing character because dilated blood vessels throb in time to the heartbeat, which pumps blood in them. Prostacyclin serves to further distention of blood vessels.

Ultimately, the third phase of migraine (reversibility phase after headache) comes. Throbbing pain gradually abates, giving place to a constant one. Walls of blood vessels become thicker and rigider, as prostacyclin and thromboxane turn into prostaglandins, but the headache goes on. Under its influence inflammation gradually develops in the walls of arteries. Puffed blood vessels often are seen on the scalp, temples and back surface of the neck. Regardless that migraine attack is already past, the pain still remains for a long time. Moreover, prostaglandins increase sensitivity of the nerve endings, placed in the head’s skin, and therefore even combing of the head becomes painful.

There is an appreciable difference between distention of blood vessels and their inflammation. For instance, if you take hot bath blood vessels of your head dilate, but this will not bring pain as in the case of migraine. One example more: if a person do exercises actively and for a long time blood vessels will dilate, but there is no pain.

However, during an attack of migraine blood vessels are not only dilate, but they inflame. Such inflammation is called aseptic, as vessel walls inflame without involvement of infection.

Migraines, due to menstrual cycle, start at once before, during, or in the first two days after menstrual bleeding. In some women beginning of a migraine attack is due to the time of ovulation. There is no such thing as daily migraine.

Duration and intensity: usually an attack of migraine lasts from four to twenty four hours, intensity of headaches also varies. Some women with a bad course of migraine should lie in a dark room.

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